The Industrial Revolution – Textiles Led the Way
England –1700s automation
Water power turned to steam power – Newcomen and, finally
in 1776, James Watt built the first successful engine
1764 Spinning Jenny Hargreaves automated yarn spinning
1785 – Weaving Cartwright mechanized the loom
1771 – first factory under one roof – Arkwright
Meanwhile, in Alamance, NC, the regulators were fighting Governor Tryon’s troops. No factories.
1775 – 1783 American Revolution
Founding Fathers – leave manufacturing in England!
Alexander Hamilton – wanted to build a “manufactory” or mill village in Paterson, NJ
Meanwhile in England – protection! Keep inventions for England
Keep the old colonies poor.
Samuel Slater – visited England, worked, memorized
1792 – 1st yarn spinning – Pawtucket, RI
1814 – 1st factory – Waltham, MA James Cabot Lowell
Later an entire textile town, Lowell, MA was named for him.
Eli Whitney Gin, Clemson University
In the South
1793 – Eli Whitney – Georgia Cotton Gin
Hogden Holmes – improved the design with a saw tooth gin
Easily copied, therefore few royalties were ever paid.
William Gregg’s Factory, Graniteville, SC
1812 William Gregg –first South Carolina attempt was a failure
1845 success at Graniteville, SC